Accidente de Chernobyl
y
Energías alternativas

Aquí se muestra información sobre las medidas que se quieren tomar para que el accidente de Chernobyl no vuelva a ocurrir.

Como podréis ver, las medidas no pasan por investigar en temas de energías alternativas como ahora la solar ( y todas las derivadas, como la eólica o la biomasa), sino que, bien al contrario, se demuestra que se hacen grandes esfuerzos por mejorar la seguridad de una energía intrínsecamente "sucia", y así se ponen una "medalla" bien grande y nos hacen ver lo buen chicos que son y cuento se preocupan por nuestra salud y nuestro bienestar.

Es lamentable que, hoy en día, los diferentes países del nombrado "primer mundo", dediquen 10 ó 20 veces más recursos en investigación para la energía atómica y de combustibles fósiles, que para unas energías limpias como la solar.

Una vez más, queda patente que en las democracias actuales aun los intereses de unos pocos, como ahora compañías petrolíferas, compañías que se dedican a la explotación de la energía nuclear, ministros de defensa ( por que no se llamarán ministerios de guerra, que es más apropiado ? ). Etc., … premian por encima ( y bien por encima ) del interés general.

Francesc Alted.
(Físico)


NEA PRESS COMMUNIQUE

The following distribution contains 4 press communiques from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency:


Paris, 13 February 1996

CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT:
THE NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY ASSESSES THE CONSEQUENCES

Full publication available online at http://www.nea.fr/html/rp/chernobyl

The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is releasing today a new report presenting an overall assessment, ten years after the Chernobyl accident, of the state of contamination of the territories affected by the radioactive release, the impact on the health of the populations, and the risks still anticipated for man and the environment.

The report CHERNOBYL - Ten Years On: Radiological and Health Impact, which is intended for a broad readership, was prepared by a small group of specialists in radiation protection and public health from OECD countries and international organisations, under the aegis of the NEA.

The forthcoming tenth anniversary of the accident offers an opportunity to take stock of the information accumulated and the scientific studies underway, and to assess the extent to which national authorities and experts have taken advantage of the lessons from the Chernobyl accident.

The report offers data on the dispersion and deposition of radionuclides within and outside the former Soviet Union, and provides estimates of the radiation doses received by the "liquidators" involved in the emergency and clean-up actions on the site, the populations around the damaged plant which were evacuated, people still in contaminated areas, and populations outside the former Soviet Union. There is also an evaluation of the health, agricultural and environmental impacts of the accident and of potential risks associated with the "sarcophagus" and the other sources of contamination existing on the site. Finally, the report discusses the lessons learnt by OECD countries and relevant international Organisations in terms of radiation protection infrastructures and emergency preparedness.

CHERNOBYL - TEN YEARS ON: Radiological and Health Impact is available free on request at http://www.nea.fr/html/rp/chernobyl or from the Publications Office of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency,
Le Seine St Germain, 12 boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les- Moulineaux, France.
Please quote title and reference in any review

News Media Contact: Jacques de la Ferte - (33-1) 45 24 10 10 or 45 24 10 15


Paris, 9 February 1996

OECD COUNTRIES REAFFIRM THEIR CONSENSUS ON THE PREVENTION OF SEVERE NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS

In a statement released today by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), governmental experts in nuclear safety, members of the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), announce their continued commitment toward prevention and mitigation of severe accidents in nuclear reactors. The statement is also intended to illustrate the common philosophy adopted toward this goal, notably the continuous introduction of improvements in current reactors, and the commitment to make future reactors still safer than those already in operation. The contribution made by international co-operation and research programmes to the resolution of severe accident issues is also recognised. Research will continue to contribute to reactor safety by reducing uncertainties further and maintaining technical expertise.

As a result of safety studies conducted in the 1970's, and the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, it was recognised that despite stringent safety requirements, accidents leading to core damage, usually referred to as "severe accidents", could occur. Large national and international research and review programmes were undertaken. Plant modifications and operational changes were and continue to be implemented in current designs to reduce further the risk from these accidents. As a result of these efforts, the safety of operating nuclear reactors is further enhanced.

For future reactors, severe accidents will be addressed in the design stage. Accident management measures will be identified at that stage and will continue to play an important role in the resolution of severe accident issues.

News Media Contact: Jacques de la Ferte - (33-1) 45 24 10 10

NEA REGULATORY VIEW ON THE RESOLUTION OF SEVERE-ACCIDENT ISSUES

A Statement by the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA)

Current reactors operating in OECD countries incorporate safety systems and features to prevent and mitigate the consequences of a set of design basis accidents (DBA). These safety features are designed and constructed to the highest engineering codes and standards; incorporate redundant and often diverse system configurations; include consideration of environmental qualification and external hazards; and incorporate conservative design margins. Accidents leading to core damage, usually referred to as "severe accidents", were considered as contributors to the residual risk only and were not addressed directly in the design process.

As a result of safety studies conducted in the 1970s, and the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, it was recognised that, despite stringent requirements, severe accidents could occur. Large national and international research and review programmes were undertaken. Plant modifications and operational changes were and continue to be implemented in current designs to reduce further the risk from these accidents.

While OECD countries strive both to prevent severe accidents and mitigate their consequences, practical considerations have resulted in greater emphasis being placed on prevention. Moreover, improved operating procedures and accident management measures have been found to be effective and are given large emphasis in most OECD countries. As a result of these measures the safety of operating nuclear reactors is further enhanced.

In general, measures to address severe accidents have been kept separate from design basis accidents and are analysed using best-estimate rather than conservative methods and assumptions. The design features intended to cope with these accidents do not systematically incorporate redundancy or diversity or the same level of qualification as those features intended to cope with design basis accidents. Many countries have considered that severe-accident features are not essential to providing an adequate level of protection to the public. These features provide additional defense-in-depth.

For future reactors, severe accidents will be addressed in the design stage. For instance, plant-specific contributors to the overall risk will be identified through the systematic use of a probabilistic safety assessment. Features should be included to reduce the likelihood and limit the consequences of severe accidents. The performance of the containment under severe- accident conditions should be systematically addressed in the design. Accident-management measures will be identified in the design phase and will continue to play an important role in the resolution of severe-accident issues.

Offsite emergency response should continue to be regarded as an important additional level of public protection. Because future plants will be designed to limit offsite releases further, it may be possible in some cases to reduce the scope of emergency preparedness compared with current requirements.

The understanding of severe-accident phenomena has progressed substantially since the Three Mile Island accident. International co-operation and research programmes have made an important contribution to the resolution of severe-accident issues. Further research will contribute to reducing uncertainties and maintaining technical expertise.


Paris, 9 February 1996

NEW NEA STUDY ON NATIONAL LEGISLATION IN THE NUCLEAR FIELD

The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has just published a new analytical study concerning nuclear legislation in NEA countries entitled "Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities".

The use of nuclear energy carries with it the obligation, for both producer and consumer countries, to provide specific legislation in response to the past, present and future requirements of nuclear energy. There are many nuclear laws, and as can be seen from this study of the 25 NEA countries, they vary greatly. This analytical study gives a global, quick and systematic picture of the nuclear legislation of each country.

This publication is intended for all those with an interest in nuclear law, and for the first time offers them an excellent collection of information covering the institutional framework for nuclear energy in each country, together with the main sectors of nuclear energy, including mining regimes, trade in nuclear materials and equipment, radioactive waste management, radiation protection, etc.

The publication is presented in the form of a loose leaf binder, facilitating annual updates and the introduction of sections concerning the legislation in any new Member countries.

News Media Contact: Jacques de la Ferte - (33-1) 45 24 10 10

"Nuclear Legislation - Analytical Study: Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities" OECD, Paris 1995,
ISBN 92-64-14586-9
France only: FF780 - All other countries: FF935; US$190;
DM267 (with free 1996 update)
Available from the OECD Publications Distributors - see attached list.
Please quote title and reference in any review


Paris, 9 February 1996
(Just published)

THE NEA ANALYSES LESSONS FROM AN INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR EMERGENCY EXERCISE

Since the accident at Three Mile Island in 1979, many countries have strived to improve their emergency planning, preparedness and management programmes for nuclear accidents. The accident at Chernobyl in 1986 highlighted the importance of the international and transborder aspects of these accidents. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has just published a new report with the lessons from an international nuclear emergency exercise intended to improve international co-operation and co-ordination in case of nuclear accidents (INEX 1).

The specific objectives of INEX 1 were:

News Media Contact: Jacques de la Ferte - (33-1) 45 24 10 10

This report presents a brief history of the events leading up to INEX 1, describes the exercise in detail, and provides an in- depth analysis of the results, experiences and lessons learned form it. Recommendations for future work in the area of international exercises are provided, as well as all background material necessary for running the INEX 1 exercise again as part of an ongoing training programme.

"INEX 1 - An International Nuclear Emergency Exercise" OECD, Paris 1995
France only: FF 320 - All other countries: FF 400; US$ 80; DM 115
ISBN 92-64-14560-5
Available from the OECD Publications Distributors - see attached list.

Please quote title and reference in any review